The Zeugma Story
Extraordinary Roman mosaics such as this image of a girl or perhaps a goddess once decorated wealthy houses in Zeugma in southern Turkey.
It wasn’t good policy that saved ancient Zeugma. It was a good story. In 2000, the construction of the massive Birecik Dam on the Euphrates River, less than a mile from the site, began to flood the entire area in southern Turkey. Immediately, a ticking time-bomb narrative of the waters, which were rising an average of four inches per day for six months, brought Zeugma and its plight global fame. The water, which soon would engulf the archaeological remains, also brought increasing urgency to salvage efforts and emergency excavations that had already been taking place at the site, located about 500 miles from Istanbul, for almost a year. The media attention Zeugma received attracted generous aid from both private and government sources. Of particular concern was the removal of Zeugma’s mosaics, some of the most extraordinary examples to survive from the ancient world. Soon the world’s top restorers arrived from Italy to rescue them from the floodwaters. The focus on Zeugma also brought great numbers of international tourists—and even more money—a trend that continues today with the opening in September 2011 of the ultramodern $30 million Zeugma Mosaic Museum in the nearby city of Gaziantep.
But Zeugma’s story begins millennia before the dam was constructed. In the third century B.C., Seleucus I Nicator (“the Victor”), one of Alexander the Great’s commanders, established a settlement he called Seleucia, probably a katoikia, or military colony, on the western side of the river. On its eastern bank, he founded another town he called Apamea after his Persian-born wife. The two cities were physically connected by a pontoon bridge, but it is not known whether they were administered by separate municipal governments, and nothing of ancient Apamea, nor the bridge, survives. In 64 B.C., the Romans conquered Seleucia, renaming the town Zeugma, which means “bridge” or “crossing” in ancient Greek. After the collapse of the Seleucid Empire, the Romans added Zeugma to the lands of Antiochus I Theos of Commagene as a reward for his support of General Pompey during the conquest.
Throughout the imperial period, two Roman legions were based at Zeugma, increasing its strategic value and adding to its cosmopolitan culture. Due to the high volume of road traffic and its geographic position, Zeugma became a collection point for road tolls. Political and trade routes converged here and the city was the last stop in the Greco-Roman world before crossing over to the Persian Empire. For hundreds of years Zeugma prospered as a major commercial city as well as a military and religious center, eventually reaching its peak population of about 20,000–30,000 inhabitants. During the imperial period, Zeugma became the empire’s largest, and most strategically and economically important, eastern border city.
However, the good times in Zeugma declined along with the fortunes of the Roman Empire. After the Sassanids from Persia attacked the city in A.D. 253, its luxurious villas were reduced to ruins and used as shelters for animals. The city’s new inhabitants were mainly rural people who employed only simple building materials that did not survive. Zeugma’s grandeur and importance would remain forgotten for more than 1,700 years. By MATTHEW BRUNWASSER
‘Goat Farmer‘ Meetup
Currently billing my 3rd Life: ‘Fortuneteller’ upgraded on LinkedIn as a Astro-Psychometrician – A psychometrician is someone who practices the science of educational and psychological measurement, or in other words, testing. An Astro-Psychometrician is a 1st Life Architect- 2nd Life Goat Farmer who asks you: When’s Your Birthday?
Travailing to Houston with an expired driver’s license and without Jane Marie, meant I had to find a way to get from George Bush to Wharton. A 78 mile 1hr 23min one way taxi ride in Turkey might cost $50 versus $250 in America. MaryKarmen and Abundio the entire workforce of the Anala Goat Company, now living in Inez, saved me both ways, and better yet, hosting me at the best Mexican restaurant in Wharton.
The Loredo family and I share Expat status. After I flashed my Turkish Green Card (Kimlik), I inquired if they were still waiting for adoption by their 18 year old daughter? Claro que si!
Diego now 14 tells me in non-denominational Tejano English that he goes to a ‘white’ kids school in the little town of Vanderbilt, TX, plays on the football team and loves to fish.
Abundio gave up goats for hourly game warden duty on a deer ranch, where he camps out at night to shoot coyotes with his night vision rife. Getting paid for hunting sounds a lot better than milking fifty goats and three cows.